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Performance of broiler birds on feeding natural anti stressors in summer during heat stress

Ali Salman Ajmal1, Zahid Hussain2*, Muhammad Moazam Jalees3, Jamila Shafi4, Sohail Manzoor5, Anwar ul Haq6

1Department of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

2Livestock & Dairy Development Department, Lahore, Pakistan

3Department of Microbiology, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

4Poultry Disease Laboratory, L&DD, Samundri, Pakistan

5Animal Disease Diagnostic, Reporting and Surveillance, L&DD, Lahore, Pakistan

6Veterinary Research Institute, L&DD, Lahore, Pakistan


This study was planned to assess the effectiveness of natural anti heat stressors on the broilers during hot climate. Three hundred one day old broiler birds were divided into four treatments groups, yoghurt, garlic powder and mint and a control group. After two weeks of rearing, data were recorded for growth performance, carcass and visceral organ yield and immune response against Newcastle Disease. Statistical analysis revealed that growth performance (weight gain, carcass weight and cumulative feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved with garlic powder, but feed intake remained non-significant. Dressing% and breast% were also significantly higher in garlic fed birds and similar effect was observed for intestinal length. Among visceral organs, liver% was improved upon garlic supplemented broiler but heart and gizzard were not influenced by dietary treatments. Additionally, garlic powder in feed also resulted in significantly higher antibody titer against Newcastle disease. It was concluded that garlic as natural anti-heat stressor has significant positive influence on the performance of heat stressed broilers.

Keywords: Broiler birds, Heat stress, Garlic, Mint, Yogurt

Rose and eucalyptus essential oil as potent anti-liver cancer agents

Shabnam Javed1, Amna Shoaib2, Ayesha Malik3, Bushra Ijaz3, Shagufta Perveen2 

1Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590, Pakistan

2Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590, Pakistan

3National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB), University of the Punjab, Lahore-53700, Pakistan


The present study was designed to investigate the anti-cancer potential of essential oil obtained from Rosa indica (REO) and Eucalyptus citriodora (EEO) against the liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2). Firstly, the cytotoxic activity was assessed using increasing concentrations ranging from 3.12 to 200 µg/ml via MTT assay. EEO showed only 2% cell viability while REO represented 18% at the highest concentration (200 μg/ml). The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of EEO and REO was found to be 17.741 µg/ml and 18.55 µg/ml respectively. Additionally, evident morphological changes in HepG2 cells were observed after 24 hours of essential oil treatment compared to control or untreated cells. Furthermore, to strengthen the anti-cancer perspective of essential oils, the anti-metastatic potential was evaluated through the wound healing assay. EEO promisingly inhibited migration (4% wound closure, **p > 0.01) in HepG2 cells after 24 hr treatment. Likewise, REO also exhibited good results (37% wound closure, ***p > 0.001). Conclusively, the present investigation provides preliminary results which suggest that REO and EEO are potent anti-cancer agents against hepatocellular carcinoma.

Keywords: Essential oil, Metastasis, HepG2, Cytotoxicity, Liver cancer

Effect of salinity stress on physiological aspects of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne. ‘Laikaotok’) under hydroponic condition

Worasitikulya Taratima1*, Narisa Kunpratum2, Pitakpong Maneerattanarungroj3

1Salt Tolerance Rice Research Group, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
2Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Naresuan University, Pitsanulok 65000, Thailand
3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand


Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) ‘Laikaotok’ is an important edible vegetable but growth and crop yield are affected by salinity stress. Response of physiological traits to salinity stress was investigated under hydroponic culture using Hoagland’s solution at different NaCl concentrations of 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 120 mM. All treatments were cultured for four weeks and physiological traits were recorded. Results showed that pumpkin growth decreased after NaCl treatment, especially at 45 mM and higher concentrations. Leaf number, leaf width, leaf length, root number, stem length, stem diameter, SPAD unit, chlorophyll fluorescence in dark condition for 30 min (Fv’/Fm’), chlorophyll fluorescence in light condition (Fv/Fm), total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Results indicated that salt concentration at less than 45 mM NaCl was suitable for C. moschata ‘Laikaotok’ growth. Phenotypic correlation coefficient estimation of 12 physiological traits showed positive correlation at a highly significant level, except for the correlation between plant height – Fv/Fm; plant height – Fv’/Fm’; root number – Fv/Fm and root number – Fv’/Fm’. This is the first report on salt stress response in C. moschata ‘Laikaotok’. Knowledge gained will be useful for pumpkin culture or rootstock selection under sensitive and moderately sensitive saline conditions.

Keywords: Growth, Hydroponic culture, NaCl, Pumpkin, Phenotypic correlation

Silicon improves strawberry plants nutrient uptake and epicuticular wax formation in a rhizosphere cooling system

1Faculty of Fisheries and Food Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

2Laboratory for Pest, Disease and Microbial Biotechnology (LAPDiM), Central Laboratory, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

3Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University (NSYSU), No. 70, Lienhai Rd., Kaohsiung, 80424, Taiwan


Bioavailable silicon (silicic acid) is considered to be beneficial for plant growth and development. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of silicic acid [Si(OH)4] and potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) application on strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) plants’ nutrient uptake and leaf wax formation. The strawberry plants (cvs Festival and Fortuna) were grown in a rhizosphere cooling system (RCS) at a mean rhizosphere temperature of 18°C ±2. Accumulation of plant nutrients in the plant parts was analysed by using inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), whilst the formation of wax on the leaves was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that plants given 0.25% (v/v) Si(OH)4 via the roots had the highest amount of silicon accumulated in the leaves, roots, and crowns of both cultivars. The greatest amount of Ca and Mg was also found in the leaves of cv. Festival plants treated with 0.25% (v/v) Si(OH)4 through the roots; whereas in cv. Fortuna, Ca, Mg and P had their highest amount accumulated in the leaves of plants sprayed with 0.25% (v/v) Si(OH)4 mixed with 0.5% (s/v) KHCO3. Root application of the KHCO3 treatments on the other hand, limited Ca, Mg, Mn and Fe uptake into the plant parts. The leaves of the Si(OH)4 treated plants were covered with a denser mass of wax when observed under SEM. Thus, Si(OH)4 application was found to enhance strawberry plants’ uptake of essential nutrients and also improved the formation wax on leaves, that may delay plant diseases invasion.

Keywords: Cooling system, Silicic acid, Silicon, Plant nutrient, Strawberr

A review of current aspects of sars family, genome, database, drug, vaccine and its pathogenic member SARS-CoV-2

Rawaa AlChalabi1, Basma Kh. Alani1, Taisir K. Ibrahim2, AhmedAbdul Jabbar Suleiman3 

1Al-Nahrain University, College of Biotechnology, Baghdad, Iraq

2Tikrit University, College of Science, Biology Department, Saladin, Iraq

3Biotechnology Department, College of Science, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Anbar, Iraq


The coronaviruses (CoV) show great diversity with respect to their genomic structures and the ability to infect animals and human beings. Multiple omics studies have been conducted to understand and identify the genome organization, immunological responses, and molecular markers for vaccine and drug development. However, due to constant mutational changes in the CoV-2 genome, the drug and vaccine development is becoming a challenge to target new variants. A tremendous amount of research is being carried out for vaccine development by utilizing bioinformatics and immunoinformatics, however, most of the developed vaccines are under trial. In this review, SARS family members are systematically illuminated for their differences, infections and mechanism of action along with recommendations to counter the new variants of CoV-2 through multi-omics, machine learning and structural bioinformatics techniques.

Keywords: SARS, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Pandemic, Coronaviruses, RNA viruses, MERS-CoV

Influence of dietary neutral detergent fiber on feed intake and nutrient digestibility of crossbred Black Angus cattle

Nguyen Binh Truong1,2*, Tran Trung Tuan1,2

1An Giang University, An Giang, Vietnam

2Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam


The objective of this experiment was to evaluate different neutral detergent fiber (NDF) levels affected on the feed intake and nutrient digestibility of crossbred beef cattle. Four male F1 (Black Angus x Zebu cross) cattle at 20.5±1.21 (Mean±SD) months of age with average body weight of 299±12.1 kg were used in a 4×4 Latin square design (fourteen days per each period). The treatments were 47% (NDF47), 51% (NDF51), 55% (NDF55), and 59% (NDF59) NDF in diets. The results showed that the dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) intake were not different (P>0.05) among treatments. However, both NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF) consumption were lower for NDF 47 than NDF59 treatments (P<0.05), while metabolizable energy was highest for NDF47 compare with NDF59 treatment (P<0.05). The DM digestibility was higher (P<0.05) for the NDF47 (65.3%) compared with NDF59 (57.5%), while NDF47 was similar (P>0.05) to NDF51 (62.4%), and NDF55 (59.4%) treatments. The data for CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility were similar (P>0.05) among treatments. However, there was tended to be lower in NDF59 than NDF47 treatments. The daily weight gain was 866, 821, 786, and 686 g/animal/day for treatments of NDF47, NDF51, NDF55, and NDF59, respectively. While, feed conversion ratio was lower for NDF47 and higher for NDF59 treatments (P>0.05). The conclusion in the present study was 55% NDF in diet could be properly recommended for farmers’ practice in terms of feed utilization.

 Keywords: Neutral detergent fiber, Rumen digestibility, Crossbred beef cattle

Effects of hormone and cold treatments on dormancy breaking of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers

Rattikarn Sennoi1*, Rattanajira Ruttanaprasert2, Supansa Chinaworn1, Ratchanee Puttha3 

1Department of Plant Production Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Rajamangala University of Technology Tawan-ok, Chonburi, 20110, Thailand

2Department of Plant Science, Textile and Design, Faculty of Agriculture and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan, Surin Campus, Surin 32000, Thailand

3Faculty of Agricultural Production, Maejo University, San Sai, Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand


The objective of this research was to determine the effects of gibberellic acid, cytokinin and ethylene and chilling at 5 oC for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 weeks on germination of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers. Gibberellic acid, cytokinin, ethylene and a blank control were assigned as factor A, and four Jerusalem artichoke varieties including JA 89, HEL 65, CN52867 and hybrid variety, 50-4 were assigned as factor B. A 4×10 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block arrangement of the treatments with four replications was laid out for the chilling treatment. Data were recorded for germination percentage after 7 days of germination for hormone treatment and for 7 days of germination for chilling treatment. A significant difference of three plant hormones was found for Jerusalem artichoke tuber germination. Gibberellic acid was effective for breaking dormancy of four Jerusalem artichoke varieties, influencing the highest tuber germination percentage from both times of evaluation. For breaking tuber dormancy by chilling, highly significant different periods of chilling were found for a percentage of tuber germination. Ten weeks of chilling in 5 oC showed the highest germination, 96.3 %. JA 89 and 50-4 exhibited high germination in both breaking dormancy methods.

 Keywords: Tuber crop, Endodormancy, Dormancy breakin

β -glucan and antioxidant activities of four edible mushroom extracts from Thailand

Chanida Kupradit1*, Araya Ranok1, Seksan Mangkalanan1, Chompoonuch Khongla1, Sumalee Musika1

1Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Liberal Arts, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan,  Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000, Thailand


The commercial mushroom extracts from Thailand, Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Volvariella volvacea, could be sources of β-glucan and antioxidant. The objective of this research was to evaluate the β-glucan content and antioxidant activities of the mushroom extracts prepared from different extraction conditions. Various solvents, including water, ethanol, acid, and alkali were used for the mushroom extraction. The mushroom extracts were evaluated for their β-glucan content, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant properties. Among all extraction conditions, the alkaline extracted (BE) P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju showed high level of β-glucan content with 25.82 ± 3.87% w/w and 23.08 ± 0.56% w/w, respectively. Large amounts of total phenolic compounds were obtained from V.  volvacea and L. squarrosulus extracted with water at 60oC (W60) as 38.07 ± 2.53 and 34.78 ± 5.69 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract, respectively.  Excellent scavenging of ABTS radicals and FRAP assay were also observed in W60 of V.  volvacea as 67.12 ± 4.41 and 36.46 ± 3.44 mg trolox equivalent/g extract, respectively. The metal chelating effect of P. ostreatus was the highest at 66.13 ± 1.63 mg EDTA equivalent/g extract but was not significantly different from V.  volvacea (63.76 ± 0.51 mg EDTA equivalent/g extract) (p > 0.05). In conclusion, alkaline extraction was the most suitable for β -glucan and metal chelating activity extracts whereas water extraction was suitable for antioxidant extracts. These simple extraction conditions could be applied in producing high bioactive compounds and antioxidant active ingredients from local mushrooms for further addition in food and health products.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, β-glucan, Phenolic compound, Extraction, Mushroom

Cabbage and Swiss chard yield, irrigation requirement and soil chemical responses in zeolite-amended sandy soil

Olwetu Antonia Sindesi1, Bongani Ncube2*, Muinat Nike Lewu3, Azwimbavhi Reckson Mulidzi3, Francis Bayo Lewu1

1Department of Agriculture, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Private Bag X8, Wellington 7654, South Africa

2Centre for Water and Sanitation Research, Faculty of Engineering & the Built Environment, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville 7535, Cape Town, South Africa

3Soil and Water Science Programme, Agricultural Research Council Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa


Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) are important vegetables for food and nutrition in many parts of the world. Like many other crops, vegetable production is affected by poor soil fertility and shortages of irrigation water. Climate change-related drought has led to shortages of irrigation water in many countries, including South Africa. Farmers have used amendments such as inorganic fertilisers, organic manure, and compost to improve soil fertility. However, organic soil conditioners fall short in providing stable non-decomposable soil amendments, and inorganic fertilisers are expensive. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Council Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Stellenbosch, to assess the effect of zeolite (a soil conditioner) on cabbage and Swiss chard yield, water, and nutrient retention ability of the soil. Zeolite to sandy soil (zeolite: sandy soil) was applied in the ratio of 0:100%, 10:90%, 20:80% and 30:70%. Both cabbage and Swiss chard yields increased, irrigation requirements decreased, and soil acidity was ameliorated due to zeolite application. Cabbage yields were improved by the residual effects of zeolite, while the Swiss chard yield increase was due to vigorous vegetative growth of Swiss chard in zeolite-amended treatments, which led to more N and water utilisation, particularly in the second season. The study also highlighted the potential of zeolite in ameliorating the pH of acidic soils, as well as the water and nutrient-saving ability of zeolite, which are major challenges for crop production in sandy soils. However, there is a need to carry out further studies to find the cost-effective application rates of zeolite under on-farm conditions.

Keywords: Soil nutrients, Leafy vegetables, Sandy soil, Irrigation, Soil conditioner

Hepatoprotective effect of sandfish “Scincus scincus” extract on cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

Ramzi Lamraoui1,2, Messaoud Hachemi1, Djalel Eddine Gherissi2*, Fatima Laabassi1, Dounia Djellal1, Naima Kadrine3, Souhila Haddad4, Sameh-Echourouk Saoudi1, Zineb Chouit5, Zineb Djellal1, Meriem Fellahi1, Faicel Chacha6

1Department of Biology of Living Organisms, Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences, University of Batna 2, Batna (05110), Algeria

2Laboratory of Animal Productions, Biotechnologies and Health, Institute of Agronomic and Veterinary Sciences, University of Souk-Ahras, BP 41000, Algeria

3Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Batna 1, Batna, Algeria

4Laboratory of Biomathematics, Biophysics, Biochemistry and Scientometry, University of Bejaia, Algeria

5Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Jijel, Algeria

6Biotechnology Research Center, PO E73 .NU N° 03 Constantine, Algeria


Hepatotoxicity is defined as injury to the liver or impairment of the liver function after exposure to various risk factors. This study was planned to investigate hypothesis of hepatoprotective effect of sandfish (Scincus scincus) consumed for its health virtuous by local Saharan peoples from Algeria. For this purpose, sandfish extract benefits against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced liver toxicity in rats was evaluated. The rats (n=23) were divided into 4 groups; the control group (n= 5) received a vehicle, the extract group (n= 5) received via gavage sandfish extract (100mg/kg), Cadmium group (n= 6) received CdCl2 (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection), cadmium +extract group(n= 7) received after the single injection of CdCl2(1mg/kg) the sandfish extract (100 mg/kg, orally).The experimentation was performed over 56 days. Body weight, relative liver weight (LW) and biochemical parameters namely glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB) and direct bilirubin (DB) were measured. Glutathione (GSH) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) activities were measured to evaluate the changes in antioxidative system and lipid peroxidation activity in liver tissues. Relative LW, MDA, ALT and TB were significantly increased by CdCl2 treatment. The treatment with sandfish extract after CdCl2 injection reduced significantly ALT, AST and TB. The GSH level was significantly altered (0.19±0.05 mg/g) by Cd treatment, which was recovered (0.43±0.08 mg/g) after that by sandfish extract gavages. In conclusion, inclusion of sandfish in rat diet showed significant evidences of hepatoprotective effect in response to acute Cd hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: Biochemical parameters, Cadmium, GSH, Hepatoprotective effect, Scincus scincus